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Astaxanthin as a valuable natural carotenoid

Mohd Hatta, Farah Ayuni and Othman, Rashidi and Mat Ali, Qurratu Aini and Ramya, Razanah and Mohd Latiff, Nur Hanie and Wan Sulaiman, Wan Syibrah Hanisah (2021) Astaxanthin as a valuable natural carotenoid. In: What to know about caretonoids. Nutrition and Diet Research Progress . Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, New York, pp. 1-25. ISBN 978-1-68507-105-9

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Carotenoids can be obtained naturally from several sources like fruits, algae, plants, and crustaceans, contributing to varying red or yellow pigmentation. Carotenoids are acyclic substances having several transformations, leading to more than 800 compounds derived by the addition of oxygen-abundant functional groups or end group cyclisation. Hence, the polyene composition allows carotenoids to be potent free- radical scavengers. These compounds can capture single oxygen atoms or peroxyl radicals. Astaxanthin leads the global carotenoid market that is expected to reach $427.0 million in 2022 from $288.7 million in 2017, corresponding to an 8.1% CAGR. Astaxanthin itself is expected to have a global market value of $2.57 billion by 2025. Astaxanthin demand is rising due to increasing health awareness among consumers who demand products and applications, leading to a $2000 per kg market price. Moreover, astaxanthin possesses colour imparting properties that also increase market demand. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-,-carotene-4,4'- dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid with lipophilic characteristics (C40). This substance is reddish and found abundantly in crustaceans like crab, shrimp, lobster, salmon, and other seafood. Phytoplankton and specific microalgae are the significant consumers of astaxanthin, which builds up inside the bodies of these organisms. Astaxanthin is a shrimp by-product with potent antioxidant characteristics beneficial for humans since they provide anti-inflammatory and UV-light defence properties. Numerous studies indicate very high biological activity compared to other carotenoids; Astaxanthin is ten times more potent than lutein, canthaxanthin, β-carotene, and zeaxanthin, while it is 100 times more potent than α-tocopherol. Such characteristics are attributed to the specific molecular arrangement comprising keto moieties and hydroxyl presence on every ionone ring and long conjugated double bonds (13 conjugated double bonds) in the middle of the structure. Much research has been dedicated to assess Astaxanthin processing, functionality, and sources. Nevertheless, data concerning compound stability considering various environmental, storage, and carrier conditions is scarce.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional Information: 9386/92302
Uncontrolled Keywords: carotenoids, astaxanthin, bioactivity, extraction, pigment, stability
Subjects: BPH Islamic Economics > BPH114 Consumption. Halal issues
BPH Islamic Economics > BPH122 Consumption. Halal issues. Specific products. Food and drink
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART)
Date Deposited: 17 Sep 2021 10:11
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2021 10:12
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/92302

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