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Role of maternal nutrition - The DOHaD hypothesis

Ismail, Hamizah (2022) Role of maternal nutrition - The DOHaD hypothesis. In: 21st Congress of the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies and 28th Congress of Perinatal Society of Malaysia, Virtual, Kuala Lumpur. (Unpublished)

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Barker hypothesised that adult disease has its origins in the foetal life while developing in the maternal womb, influencing the foetus' entire adult life and having multigenerational effects. This is later referred to as the DOHaD (Developmental Origin of Adult and Health Diseases). For the purposes of this symposium, the generation of the new world would be the foetus or infant of the 1. SARS-CoV-2 gestational infections 2. current macronutrient or diet habit of the mother, and 3. micronutrient supplements received by the mother. SARS-CoV-2 causes high C-reactive protein (CRP), a maternal inflammatory marker that is associated with fetal brain involvement. Vaccination may also cause high CRP to the level of maternal infection. Further to infection and vaccination, COVID-19 has caused many vulnerable families to experience increased food insecurity and poor food quality intake, posing a triple environmental risk to the developing foetus and infant. The total effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the foetal brain will be determined long after the pandemic has ended; however, a report of 57 infants whose mothers had COVID-19 gestation infection, predominantly in the third trimester, showed decreased motor, communication, and social development at three months of age. Learning from previous experiences, viral infections during pregnancy have been linked to future autism and schizophrenia. The maternal diet habits or macronutrient intakes such as fast food or junk food eaters contribute to gestational diabetes and maternal obesity. The majority of mothers consume little protein but plenty of carbohydrates and saturated fats. Maternal malnutrition results in poor foetal or infant programming, which leads to childhood obesity and an increase in diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Micronutrients (iron, folate, zinc, iodine, and choline) or vitamins (Vit B12, A, D, E) deficiencies or excesses during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases and musculoskeletal problems in adulthood. The amount and composition of maternal micronutrients from different diets and supplements have significant short- and long-term effects on foetal and infant neurodevelopment. The effects are heavily influenced by the stages of foetal and infant development. Vitamin D and folate will be covered in this presentation due to availability of strong evidence and commonly used in our daily practise and prescription. Investing in early childhood nutrition from conception to the first two years of life (the first 1000 days) maximises human development potential by preventing growth restriction, promoting optimal brain development, and ensuring the quality of life for survivors. This can be accomplished by promoting maternal and child health, reducing malnutrition through the provision of high-quality complementary foods, encouraging a well-balanced dietary pattern, and increasing health literacy. The importance of high-quality nutrition during pregnancy and lactation must be recognised by the general public and health professionals, as it has a significant and long-term impact on children's health.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Invited Papers)
Uncontrolled Keywords: DOHaD, Maternal Nutrition, Macronutrient, Micronutrient, COVID-19
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Medicine > Department of Obstetric & Gynecology
Depositing User: Dato' Dr Hamizah Ismail
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2022 16:29
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2022 16:29
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/99720

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