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Integrated multichannel electrochemical–quartz crystal microbalance sensors for liquid sensing

Zainuddin, Ahmad Anwar and Nordin, Anis Nurashikin and Mohd Mansor, Ahmad Fairuzabadi and Ab Rahim, Rosminazuin and Wing, Cheung Mak (2020) Integrated multichannel electrochemical–quartz crystal microbalance sensors for liquid sensing. IEEE Access, 8. pp. 3668-3676. ISSN 2169-3536

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This paper highlights the design, simulation and fabrication of an array of twelve integrated electrochemical – quartz crystal microbalance (IEQCM) sensors on a single substrate for liquid sensing. Integration of both measurement techniques is made possible by combining the three electrode electrochemical device with the top and bottom electrodes for the microbalance. Important design parameters such as the working electrode radius and gap spacing, were studied using both theoretical calculations and COMSOL Multiphysics R finite element simulations. The sensor’s working electrode radius affects the magnitude of the frequency response while the gap affects the capacitance and current density which are important for electrochemical measurements. It was found that the best values for the working electrode radius was 2 mm and gap spacing was 0.5 mm. The sensors were fabricated using microfabrication techniques for the gold electrode and screen printing techniques for the reference electrode. Water contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscope were utilized to study the surface roughness of the IEQCM sensor. IEQCM has a low contact angle of 53.0 ± 1 ◦ and low surface roughness of 1.92nm. For liquid sensing, an array of circular chambers were fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of the quartz substrate for liquid testing. Electrochemical measurements and cyclic voltammetry were performed using the sensor in ferri-ferrocyanide and phosphate buffered saline solution to study the function of scan rates on the peak current with respect to the potential difference. For mass sensing measurements, liquid water droplets of 1uL – 10 uL were placed onto the sensing surface and the change in resonance frequencies of the sensors were measured. These resonance frequency changes can be converted in mass change/area in accordance to the advanced Sauerbrey equation. The multichannel IEQCM sensor shows good potential as a parallel sensor for both biosensing and environmental applications.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Additional Information: 3239/78275
Uncontrolled Keywords: Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM); Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); Sensor arrays; Microelectromechanical devices; Mass spectroscopy; Acoustic devices.
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Engineering > Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Depositing User: Dr. Anis Nurashikin Nordin
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2020 16:33
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2020 10:43
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/78275

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