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Fungsi dan keistimewaan Taman Traditional Melayu=The special role of Malay traditional garden

Harun, Nor Zalina and Abdullah, Fadzidah and Khalid, Najihan (2017) Fungsi dan keistimewaan Taman Traditional Melayu=The special role of Malay traditional garden. In: Seminar Antarabangsa ke-10 Ekologi, Habitat Manusia & Perubahan Persekitaran di Alam Melayu, 2017, 18th-19th November 2017, Melaka, Malaysia.

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Abstract

Kewujudan dan perkembangan taman Melayu tradisional telah memberikan sumbangan penting kepada identiti budaya Melayu. Bilangan taman Melayu tradisional yang semakin merosot telah menyebabkan kefahaman dan penghargaan terhadap konsep sebenar taman ini semakin menghilang. Kajian ini bertujuan memberikan pencerahan tentang konsep taman Melayu tradisional, lebih-lebih lagi tentang pemilihan tumbuhan dalam kalangan masyarakat Melayu. Kajian mendapati taman Melayu tradisional mempunyai ciri-ciri tersendiri mengikut fungsi berbeza bagi setiap elemen landskap yang dikenal pasti sepanjang kajian. Sementara itu, dua objektif kajian telah dirumuskan seperti berikut: (i) untuk mengenal pasti tipologi dan fungsi tumbuhan yang digunakan di taman Melayu tradisional, (ii) untuk mengkaji pengaruh budaya dalam pemilihan tumbuhan di taman Melayu tradisional. Data kajian didapatkan dari dua buah negeri di Malaysia menggunakan kaedah kualitatif. Negeri pertama, Kelantan terletak di sebelah pantai timur sementara negeri kedua, Melaka di bahagian Selatan. Setiap sebuah negeri memaparkan enam jenis rumah tradisi Melayu. Negeri-negeri ini dipilih berdasarkan tiga kaedah pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam kajian: pemerhatian, temu bual separa berstruktur dan analisis dokumen tentang budaya dan taman Melayu tradisional. Data yang dikumpul kemudiannya dianalisis menggunakan analisis pembandingan bagi mengkaji perbezaan yag terdapat di antara dua negeri terbabit. Dapatan kajian daripada kedua-dua negeri menunjukkan tumbuhan dan tanaman yang ditemui di rumah Melayu tradisional adalah mengikut prinsip kegunaan dan peraturan dalam menghias laman rumah. Dari sudut kegunaan, tumbuhan yang ditemui adalah yang menghasilkan buah, sayur-sayuran serta tanaman herba yang boleh digunakan dalam masakan atau bagi tujuan perubatan. Selain ditanam sebagai hiasan dan sumber makanan, dapatan dari kedua-dua tapak kajian juga mendapati semua tumbuhan di taman Melayu tradisional mempunyai nilai fungsi ruang dalam mewujudkan ruang untuk bersosial. Tiga nilai fungsi ruang yang dikenal pasti ialah: 1) privasi dan 3) sempadan dari sebuah rumah ke sebuah rumah. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa taman Melayu tradisional menjadi lubuk tempatan yang menyimpan koleksi bercatatan tentang tumbuhan hidup bagi tujuan kajian saintifik, pemuliharaan, pameran serta pendidikan. Taman Melayu tradisional terus berkembang pesat seiring keperluan dan gaya hidup masyarakat, justeru kajian selanjutnya adalah sangat penting untuk tujuan pemuliharaan tumbuhan tradisional. The creation and development of the traditional Malay garden have contributed significantly to the identity of Malay culture. The decreasing numbers of traditional Malay gardens have resulted in a lack of understanding and appreciation regarding the real concept of the traditional Malay garden. This research offers to shed light on this concept, particularly on the aspect of plant selection among the Malays. The research contends that the traditional Malay garden has its own special attributes according to the different functions of the soft landscape elements identified in the study. To this end, two objectives are formulated: (i) to identify the typologies and functions of the plants used in the traditional Malay garden, (ii) to study the influence of culture in plant selection in the traditional Malay garden. The research data was collected from two states in Malaysia using a qualitative approach. The first state, Kelantan is located in the eastern zone while the second, Melaka, is located in the southern zone. Each state consists of six of traditional Malay houses. The states were selected based on the three methods of data collection adopted in this research: observation, semi-structured interview and document analysis of Malay culture and the traditional Malay garden. The data collected is analysed using comparative analysis to examine the differences between the two states. Findings from both states show that the plants found in traditional Malay houses are prescribed according to utilitarian principles and the rules of house compound decoration. In terms of their utilitarian purpose, the plants used are those that produce fruits, vegetables and herbs that can be used in cooking or for medicinal purposes. In addition to being planted for their ornamental qualities and food, the findings from both site studies reveal that all plants in traditional Malay houses have spatial functional value in creating social spaces. The three spatial values identified are: 1) privacy and 3) boundary demarcation of one house from another. The research concludes that traditional Malay gardens provide local facilities holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display and education. As the gardens continue to evolve with society's needs and people’s changing lifestyles, further studies will be crucial for traditional plant conservation.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Invited Papers)
Additional Information: 2936/59816
Uncontrolled Keywords: taman Melayu tradisional, tipologi, fungsi,budaya traditional Malay garden, typology, function, culture, functions
Subjects: N Fine Arts > NA Architecture
N Fine Arts > Islamic art and architecture
N Fine Arts > Islamic art and architecture > Islamic garden
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes: Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design
Depositing User: Dr Fadzidah Abdullah
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2018 11:43
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2018 16:30
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/59816

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