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Religious scholars (ulama') and political leaders (umara') in the classical Malay texts: A comparative religion approach

Abdul Jalil, Mohd. Noh and Mohd Amin, Wan Mohd Azam (2017) Religious scholars (ulama') and political leaders (umara') in the classical Malay texts: A comparative religion approach. Umran: International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies, 4 (3). pp. 35-42. ISSN 2289-8204

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Abstract

This paper aims in analyzing the roles of religious scholars (Ulama’) and political leaders (Umara’) during the Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic periods in the Malay Archipelago. Different roles have been entrusted to the religious authorities by the Malay rulers. During the period of Indian cultural and religious dominance, religious scholars had a special position at the court and played a significant role in maintaining the legitimacy of the king. Close relationship between religious scholars and the Malay rulers is also evident after the coming of Islam to the archipelago. Once again, religious authorities had been entrusted with a special role by the ruling elite. However, the new Muslim scholars took on a significantly different role with regard to functions from that of their Hindu-Buddhist predecessors. Analysis on the roles of both authorities will be made based on evidence found in two classical Malay texts namely the Sejarah Melayu and Bustan al-Salatin. This paper concludes how, after the spread of Islam to the Malay Archipelago relationship between religious scholars and secular leaders changed drastically. Religious scholars (Ulama’) maintained a less direct relationship with political leaders compared to the role of the Brahmin of the devaraja cult. They merely acted as moral advisors to the rulers who would decide whether to accept or to reject religious advice presented to them based on the needs at that time.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Additional Information: 4150/59012
Uncontrolled Keywords: Malay Archipelago, devaraja, religious scholars, Hindu-Buddhist, Islam
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc > BP1 Islam
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc > BP1 Islam > BP171 Relation of Islam to other religions
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc > BP1 Islam > BP174 The Practice of Islam > BP188 Islamic religious life
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc > BP1 Islam > BP174 The Practice of Islam > BP188 Islamic religious life

B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BP Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc > BP600 Other beliefs and movements
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BQ Buddhism
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences > Department of Usul al-Din and Comparative Religion
Depositing User: Dr. Mohd Noh Abdul Jalil
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2017 15:02
Last Modified: 12 Jan 2018 16:05
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/59012

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