IIUM Repository

Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material for biodiesel production by two-step processes

Hayyan, Adeeb and Alam, Md. Zahangir and Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed and Kabbashi, Nassereldeen Ahmed and Mohd Hakimi, Noor Irma Nazashida and Mohd Siran, Yosri and Tahiruddin, Shawaluddin (2010) Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material for biodiesel production by two-step processes. Bioresource Technology, 101 (20). pp. 7804-7811. ISSN 0960-8524

[img] PDF (Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material for biodiesel) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (543kB) | Request a copy


In this study, biodiesel was produced from sludge palm oil (SPO) using tolune-4-sulfonic monohydrate acid (PTSA) as an acid catalyst in different dosages in the presence of methanol to convert free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), followed by a transesterification process using an alkaline catalyst. In the first step, acid catalyzed esterification reduced the high FFA content of SPO to less than 2% with the different dosages of PTSA. The optimum conditions for pretreatment process by esterification were 0.75% (w/w) dosage of PTSA to SPO, 10:1 M ratio, 60 �C temperature, 60 min reaction time and 400 rpm stirrer speed. The highest yield of biodiesel after transesterification and purification processes was 76.62% with 0.07% FFA and 96% ester content. The biodiesel produced was favorable as compared to EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard. This study shows a potential exploitation of SPO as a new feedstock for the production of biodiesel.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Additional Information: 4157/4069
Uncontrolled Keywords: biodiesel sludge palm oil free fatty acid toluene-4-sulfonic monohydrate acid transesterification
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology > TP248.13 Biotechnology
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Engineering > Department of Biotechnology Engineering
Depositing User: Dr. Md. Zahangir Alam
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2011 11:59
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2011 15:49
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/4069

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year