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Deficient intake of energy and macronutrients in female university students assessed by composite samples.

Khattak, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan and Khan, M. N. and Khan, A. (2007) Deficient intake of energy and macronutrients in female university students assessed by composite samples. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences , 14 (Supp 1). OBS 11. ISSN 1394-195X

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Methodology : Twenty female students were registered from the female hostel of the NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar-Pakistan for the assessment of energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate & fats) intakes by duplicate food samples. The age, weight and height of the students were recorded on the day of the registration. The students were asked to collect duplicate food samples for seven days i.e. breakfast, lunch & dinner and whatever else ate during the day. The daily food samples were bulked and composite samples were prepared for a week time. From the body weight & heights of the students the BMI was determined according to the formula; weight in kgs/ (height in meters) 2 as described by the (Bray, 1978). The skin-folds were assessed by using the adipometer and the percent body fats of the students were assessed from the body fat measurement chart for women provided in the manual of the adipometer (ACCU-MEASURE FINESS 2000).The collected duplicate food samples were blended with the help of common kitchen food blender on the next day of the last collection. The samples were analyzed for the macronutrients namely protein, carbohydrates and fats by the A.O.A.C method and consequently the energy was calculated. The energy values of the composites samples were determined by multiplying the daily eaten protein, carbohydrates and fats with 4, 4 and 9 respectively. The anthropometric and dietary intakes were compared with the international norms namely American Dietetic Association (ADA), World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Welfare Canada Nutrition Recommendation. The means were compared for the various parameters with the aforementioned norms as appropriate. The mean and standard deviation for the different aforementioned variables were determined by using a statistical package MINITAB (release 8.2) Inc. State. Drive. USA. Results : The mean age of the student was 20.80 ± 1.51 years. The height, body weight, skin fold, body fat and basal metabolic index was lower by -4.91, -2.59, -19.17, -16.20 and -4.38 percent respectively from the reference values. Similarly, when the energy and protein intakes were compared with ADA reference values the overall energy intake was lower by -29.34 percent whereas protein intake was higher by 42.65. Compared to the WHO reference values the results followed same pattern and the percent decrease and increase for the energy and protein was -30.57 and 43.29 respectively. When the energy contribution was compared with reference value for the macronutrients namely carbohydrates, protein and fats as suggested by the Health and Welfare Canada Nutrition Recommendations it was higher from protein and carbohydrates by 7.67 and 22.82 percent respectively whereas it is was lower from fat sources by -45.67 percent. Conclusion : This study suggests that the age group studied is at the risk of energy malnutrition by taking the imbalanced macronutrients dietary sources.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Subjects: T Technology > TX Home economics > TX341 Nutrition. Foods and food supply
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences > Department of Nutrition Sciences
Depositing User: Dr Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
Date Deposited: 03 Oct 2011 14:36
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2011 08:13
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/2132

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