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Development of chemometric-assisted supercritical fluid extraction of effective and natural tyrosinase inhibitor from Syzygium aqueum leaves

Zarudin, Nurul Husna and Abdullah, Erna Normaya and Shamsuri, Syamimi Sulfiza and Iqbal, Anwar and Mat Piah, Mohd Bijarimi and Abdullah, Zanariah and Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali and Ahmad, Mohammad Norazmi (2024) Development of chemometric-assisted supercritical fluid extraction of effective and natural tyrosinase inhibitor from Syzygium aqueum leaves. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 258 (2). pp. 1-14. ISSN 0141-8130 E-ISSN 1879-0003

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Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in enzymatic browning, causing quality losses in food through the oxidation process. Thus, the discovery of an effective and natural tyrosinase inhibitor via green technology is of great interest to the global food market due to food security and climate change issues. In this study, Syzygium aqueum (S. aqueum) leaves, which are known to be rich in phenolic compounds (PC), were chosen as a natural source of tyrosinase inhibitor, and the effect of the sustainable, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was evaluated. Response surface methodology-assisted supercritical fluid extraction (RSM-assisted SFE) was utilized to optimize the PCs extracted from S. aqueum. The highest amount of PC was obtained at the optimum conditions (55 °C, 3350 psi, and 70 min). The IC50 (661.815 µg/mL) of the optimized extract was evaluated, and its antioxidant activity (96.8%) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results reveal that 2’,6’-dihydroxy-4’-methoxychalcone (2,6-D4MC) (82.65%) was the major PC in S. aqueum. Chemometric analysis indicated that 2,6-D4MC has similar chemical properties to the tyrosinase inhibitor control (kaempferol). The toxicity and physiochemical properties of the novel 2,6-D4MC from S. aqueum revealed that the 2,6-D4MC is safer than kaempferol as predicted via absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) evaluation. Enzyme kinetic analysis shows that the type of inhibition of the optimized extract is non-competitive inhibition with Km = 1.55 mM and Vmax = 0.017 µM/s. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis shows the effectiveness of S. aqueum as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The mechanistic insight of the tyrosinase inhibition using 2,6-D4MC was successfully calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular docking approaches. The findings could have a significant impact on food security development by devising a sustainable and effective tyrosinase inhibitor from waste by-products that is aligned with the United Nation’s SDG 2, zero hunger.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Syzygium aqueum; Response surface methodology; Tyrosinase inhibitor; Chemometric; Density functional theory
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Science > Department of Chemistry
Kulliyyah of Science
Depositing User: Dr Mohammad Norazmi Ahmad
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2024 08:50
Last Modified: 17 Jan 2024 09:02
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/110108

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