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Goofballing of Opioid and Methamphetamine: the science behind the deadly cocktail

Mohammad Hazani, Hanis and Naina Mohamed, Isa and Muzaimi, Mustapha and Mohamed, Wael Mohamed Yousef and Yahaya, Mohamad Fairuz and Seong, Lin Teoh and Pakri Mohamed, Rashidi Mohamed and Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli and Mansoor Abdulrahman, Sundus and Ramadah, Ravi and Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim and Kumar, Jaya (2022) Goofballing of Opioid and Methamphetamine: the science behind the deadly cocktail. Frontiers in Pharmacology. ISSN 1663-9812

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Globally, millions of people suffer from various substance use disorders (SUD), including mono-and polydrug use of opioids and methamphetamine. Brain regions such as the cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central amygdala have been shown to play important roles in addiction-related behavioral changes. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized these brain regions and their corresponding neurochemical changes in numerous phases of drug dependence such as acute drug use, intoxication, craving, withdrawal, and relapse. At present, many studies have reported the individual effects of opioids and methamphetamine. However, little is known about their combined effects. Co-use of these drugs produces effects greater than either drug alone, where one decreases the side effects of the other, and the combination produces a prolonged intoxication period or a more desirable intoxication effect. An increasing number of studies have associated polydrug abuse with poorer treatment outcomes, drug-related deaths, and more severe psychopathologies. To date, the pharmacological treatment efficacy for polydrug abuse is vague, and still at the experimental stage. This present review discusses the human and animal behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical changes underlying both morphine and methamphetamine dependence separately, as well as its combination. This narrative review also delineates the recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of mono- and poly drug-use of opioids and methamphetamine at clinical and preclinical stages.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Uncontrolled Keywords: addiction, dependence, polydrug, polysubstance, opioid, methamphetamine, abuse, goofball
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Medicine > Department of Basic Medical
Depositing User: Dr Wael Mohamed
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2022 15:53
Last Modified: 08 Apr 2022 15:53
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/97543

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