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Association of smoking and severity of Covid-19 infection among 5,889 patients in Malaysia: a multi-center observational study

Ismail, Norliana and Hassan, Noraryana and Abd Hamid, Muhammad Hairul Nizam and Yusoff, Ummi Nadiah and Khamal, Noor Raihan and Omar, Mohd Azahadi and Xin, Ci Wong and Pathmanathan, Mohan Dass and Mohd Zin, Shahanizan and Muhammad Zin, Faizah and Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki and Mohd Nor, Norashidah (2022) Association of smoking and severity of Covid-19 infection among 5,889 patients in Malaysia: a multi-center observational study. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 116. pp. 189-196. ISSN 1201-9712

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Objective: This study aims to investigate the association between smoking and the severity of COVID-19 infection during the initial wave of this pandemic in Malaysia. Methods: This is a multi-center observational study using secondary hospital data collected retrospectively from February 1, 2020, until May 30, 2020. Clinical records of all real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases with smoking status, co-morbidities, clinical features, and disease management were retrieved. Severity was assessed by the presence of complications and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between COVID-19 disease severity and smoking status. Results: A total of 5,889 COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. Ever smokers had a higher risk of having COVID-19 complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.55), renal injury (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.10-2.14), and acute liver injury (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.01-1.74), compared with never smokers. However, in terms of disease outcomes, there were no differences between the two groups. Conclusion: Although no significant association was found in terms of disease outcomes, smoking is associated with a higher risk of having complications owing to COVID-19 infection.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Smoking COVID-19 severity complications disease outcome Malaysia
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
Depositing User: Professor Dr. Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2022 18:22
Last Modified: 25 Mar 2022 08:46
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/96826

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