IIUM Repository

The development and assessment of modified Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale among Malaysian singe electronic cigarette users

Aziz Ur, Rahman and Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki and Jamshed, Shazia Qasim and Mahmood, Syed and Iftikhar Baig, Muhammad Ahsan (2020) The development and assessment of modified Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale among Malaysian singe electronic cigarette users. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 12 (6). pp. 671-675. ISSN 0976-4879 E-ISSN 0975-7406

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (345kB) | Request a copy


Background: The Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) is the most widely used scale for assessing nicotine dependence on conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCGs). But the FTND does not evaluate the subject’s nicotine dependence to electronic cigarette (EC). Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and assess an equivalent modified FTND scale that measures the nicotine dependency via EC. Materials and Methods: The investigator developed the equivalent modified FTND scale that scores identical to the original scale, that is, 0–10. The developed scale piloted among 15 EC single users, that is, use only EC verified by carbon monoxide (CO) level of <8 ppm. The assessment of the scale was done among 69 EC single users and observed for 1 year to determine their nicotine status. Results: The modified scale revealed an acceptable Cronbach α value of 0.725. Further test–retest reliability of the scale showed a satisfactory Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient value of 0.730 (P > 0.05). A 1-year observation showed that of 69 single users, 11 single users completely stopped nicotine intake, 24 remained as EC single users, 15 shifted to dual-use, and 19 relapsed to TCG. Surprisingly, the EC users who completely stopped nicotine intake after 1 year had a low average nicotine dependence value of 3 that was measured by the modified FTND scale at the baseline. Conclusion: The modified FTND scale precisely identifies the physical dependence to nicotine via EC. Therefore, as per this study results the modified FTND scale can be applied in any EC-related studies to assess nicotine dependency via EC.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Additional Information: 5123/85201
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fagerström Test, electronic cigarette
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Pharmacy > Department of Pharmacy Practice
Depositing User: Professor Dr. Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2020 14:27
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2020 14:27
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/85201

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year