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Frontiers in science and technology

Yunus, Kamaruzzaman and Khan Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal, eds. (2017) Frontiers in science and technology. IIUM Press, International Islamic University Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia. ISBN 978-967-418-446-9

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INTRODUCTION The intention of “ Frontiers of Science and technology” is to provide an absolutely introductory yet rather systematic and comprehensive textbook tailored to the interests of the broader audience of science, technology, and medicine. This book is written by a number of active researchers in various scientific disciplines research experiences in science which is mostly interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary in nature. The scheme of the book is divided into four different sections namely, health and wellbeing, biotechnology, physical sciences and management of aquatic resources. Health and wellbeing is comprised two chapters-“Probiotics and Health”, “Cancer - the silent killer”. The alteration of population dynamics in the gastrointestinal tract with probiotic microorganisms offers significant potential in prophylactic and therapeutic intervention of various human diseases ranging from infantile diarrhoea to complex metabolic syndromes. “Probiotics and Health” provides the reader an understanding of the concept of human microbiota, their role in health and disease, probiotic microorganisms and a plethora of diseases against whom probiotic intervention is substantiated by human studies. The chapter “Cancer - the silent killer” gives an account of cancer progression and prevention strategies. Cancer has become a leading cause of death and disability in the developing world. Every day about 21000 cancer-related deaths occur globally. According to the World Health Organization 1.5 million died of HIV in 2013, which is nearly 4109 people per day. Due to this fact, cancer does not show the same type of attention; rather kills people silently. By 2030 - It has been estimated that there will be 21.1 million new cancer cases, of which 13.2 million cancer deaths will occur. The total economic impact due to cancer associated premature death and disability has been calculated as high as US$895 billion worldwide. Biotechnology comes in three chapters. The first one focuses on the applications and promises of laccases in Biotechnology. Laccases have been seen as a green catalyst in modern industry. This increases the importance of these enzymes in current biotechnological research and understanding. Here the discussion is concentrated on the purification of laccases to the structural modifications for rational use of the molecule. The second chapter in this section elaborates the principles of biosensing. It makes a survey of different biosensors with examples in action and provides sample illustrations of biosensors. Biosensors may be considered at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. With the advent of fascinating extended scope of nanotechnology, it has revolutionized the detection techniques in clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food quality control etc. The last chapter in this section describes an antiobesity agent Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), generally produced from the calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa and from the fruit rinds of Garcinia species. Research has shown that roselle selections have a high content of HCA and shows promise for the management of obesity problems using a drug obtained from natural source. The section Physical Sciences is sub-divided into two broader areas, chemistry and mathematics, and each are comprised of two chapters. In chemistry, the first chapter describes approaches for the microbial biotransformation of natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. Whole cell cultures microorganisms provide an efficient tool to synthesize stereochemically pure structural analogues with pronounced biological activities. This chapter provides an overview of the historical landmarks in the development of biotransformation as an interdisciplinary science together with the scope and limitations of microbial transformation. The later chapter is written about basic principles for designing calixarenes and their various applications in regard to biological activity and drug stabilization. A calixarene is a macrocycle or cyclic oligomer based on a hydroxyalkylation product of a phenol and an aldehyde. The word calixarene is derived from calix or chalice because since this type of molecule resembles a vase and from the word arene that refers to the aromatic building block. Calixarenes have hydrophobic cavities and can hold smaller molecules or ions. Calixarene nomenclature is based on counting the number of repeating units in the ring and then include this number in the name. The area of Mathematics comes with two interesting topics in two distinct chapters. The chapter “Does Math Mimic nature or Nature mimic Math?” presents an account of the golden ratio and its appearance in nature and the mathematical modelling of blood group distributions. This ratio is widely prevalent in nature and appears in the number of flowers’ petals, and is found in ratios on human body, on the earth, even in the universe. In regard to blood group distribution, this research suggests that if we know the current blood group distributions of the society then can we predict the blood groups distributions in the future. Apart from these, a number of phenomena concerning the evolution of the population system have been discussed. The following chapter written by Ganikhodjaev and Jamilov considered a quadratic stochastic operator of bisexual population. The authors investigated the parameters in which the quadratic stochastic operator is in contraction and reported that the provided condition was not the necessary condition for contraction. Some interesting findings have been listed in the section for the Management of Aquatic Resources. In the first chapter of this section the author has summarized the experiences of community based fish culture in seasonal flood plains in Bangladesh. This chapter puts forth that poverty-related food insecurity could be mitigated through proper management of seasonal flood plains. It has been appreciated that the active participation and involvement of the local community and formal and informal stakeholders in all stages of fish culture operation improves the productivity and management. The second chapter describes the fact that harmful algae produce potent toxins which cause illness or death in humans and other marine animals. They alter the structure and function of a marine ecosystem as they are transferred through the marine food web, affecting fecundity and survival at multiple levels in ways that are still not well understood. Meanwhile, the number of harmful algal species, economic losses from them, the types of resources affected, and number of toxins and toxic species are also increasing day by day. Therefore, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) over the last several decades has become a worldwide environmental concern. This chapter discusses HABs in Indian seas and neighbouring estuaries and contains specific studies conducted in the Pichavaram mangrove water. The last chapter of this section deals with the antioxidative roles of sea slugs. Sea slugs have been reported to be stamina enhancer and aphrodisiac. Studies showed that the chemical composition of the nonpolar fraction of the sea slug contain palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, myristic and oleic acids, brassicasterol, dihydrobrassicasterol and cholesterol. Based on this description it can be concluded that the sea slugs has potential as a functional food, but it is still need to conduct the research regarding the efficacy and safety of sea slug for functional food. The main intention of the book is didactic simplicity. Another purpose is a more or less systematic unification of trends of contemporary scientific practices in diversified field of interests. I believe that not only scientific aspects, but also some advanced technological interventions are presented in a very simpler way. This book is written to assist people to realize how science and technology can contribute to human welfare. People interested in scientific interventions often have very different views about the value of science and technology. At one extreme, some see science and technology as providing the principal means for reducing poverty, eliminating disease and improving well being. At another extreme, science is seen as part of an imposed, external regime, associated with industrial exploitation and the suppression of indigenous and traditional knowledge. I hope that this book will give anyone who is interested in scientific advancement a clearer picture of the role that science and technology can contribute. I firmly believe that science and technology are two dominant factors which can contribute to societal advancement which need to be well understood, particularly as they are often presented in a way which is not easily accessible to the non-specialist. I would like to express the views and stance of the Kulliyyah of Science, the International Islamic University Malaysia for the promotion of science and technology through these collective efforts. I would also like to acknowledge every person associated with this process. I hope endeavours like this will be continued in the days to come.

Item Type: Book
Additional Information: 5410/62390
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QA Mathematics
Q Science > QC Physics
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QL Zoology
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
S Agriculture > SH Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Science
Depositing User: Professor Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2018 16:24
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2018 16:24
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/62390

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