IIUM Repository (IREP)

Crab and Cockle Shells as Catalysts for the Preparation of Methyl Esters from Low Free Fatty Acid Chicken Fat

Boey, Peng-Lim and Maniam, Gaanty Pragas and Abd Hamid, Shafida and Ali, Dafaalla Mohamed Hag (2010) Crab and Cockle Shells as Catalysts for the Preparation of Methyl Esters from Low Free Fatty Acid Chicken Fat. Journal Of The American Oil Chemists' Society, 88 (2). pp. 283-288. ISSN 0003-021X

[img] PDF (Crab and Cockle Shells as Catalysts for the Preparation of Methyl) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (304kB) | Request a copy

Abstract

The use of waste oils/fats, as well as catalysts from waste materials, for producing biodiesel via transesterification have been of recent interest. As such, in the present work, the transesterification of chicken fat using crab and cockle shells as a catalyst was attempted. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that, upon thermal activation, both shells transformed into CaO, the active ingredient that catalyzes the reaction. In addition, the catalytic performance of individual shells as well as the combination of both shells in various ratios was similar. Under the optimal reaction conditions of 4.9 wt% catalyst amount and 0.55:1 methanol to oil mass ratio, methyl esters conversion above 98% was achieved in 3 h. The chicken fat methyl esters that were produced were found to meet several key specifications of biodiesel based on EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 test procedures.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Additional Information: 5980/5344
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes: Kulliyyah of Science > Department of Biotechnology
Depositing User: Mrs. Shafida Abdul Hamid
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2011 21:54
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2012 16:01
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/5344

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year