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A clinical evaluation of bleeding patterns, adverse effects, and satisfaction with the subdermal etonogestrel implant among postpartum and non-postpartum users

Abdul Wahab, Noraziana and A. Rahman, Nor Azlina and Mustafa, Kamarul Bahyah and Awang, Mokhtar and Sidek, Ayu Aszliana and Mohd Rus, Razman (2016) A clinical evaluation of bleeding patterns, adverse effects, and satisfaction with the subdermal etonogestrel implant among postpartum and non-postpartum users. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 132 (2). pp. 237-238. ISSN 0020-7292

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Abstract

The etonogestrel implant (Implanon; Merck Sharp and Dohme, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) is an effective contraceptive with a good safety profile for up to 3 years [1]. However, its adverse effects include irregular vaginal bleeding (affecting 68.0% of users), weight gain (20.7%), acne (15.3%), breast pain (9.1%), and headache (8.5%) [2]. To provide further information about contraception options for women in the postpartum period, the aim of the present study was to investigate the bleeding patterns and adverse effects reported by women who underwent Implanon insertion within 8 weeks of delivery and compare them with those experienced by non-postpartum women. A prospective study was undertaken at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang, Malaysia, between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012. Women attending the postnatal clinic or family planning/gynecology clinic who met WHO medical eligibility criteria 1 and 2 (no medical restriction for use of contraception or advantages of using contraception outweigh the risks) [3] were enrolled. Nulliparous women and women who had last delivered 8 weeks to 6 months previously were excluded. The institutional ethical committee approved the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Participants were divided into two groups. Women in the postpartum group had delivered up to 8 weeks previously and underwent Implanon insertion 4–8 weeks after delivery. Women in the non-postpartum group had last delivered at least 6 months previously and underwent Implanon insertion between day 1 and day 5 of menses. Baseline body weight was recorded for each participant. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 and 6 months. Bleeding patterns were categorized using the WHO 90-day reference period [4]. Non-menstrual adverse effects and satisfaction were recorded at 6 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The Student t test and Fisher exact test were used to compare variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 110 women were included in the study, 60 in the postpartum group and 50 in the non-postpartum group. There were no differences in bleeding patterns between the groups at 3 months (Table 1). However, at 6 months, amenorrhea was significantly more common in the postpartum group than in the non-postpartum group (P = 0.005), and infrequent bleeding was more common in the non-postpartum group (P = 0.024) (Table 1). With regard to non-menstrual adverse effects, headache and acne were significantly more common in the non-postpartum group than in the postpartum group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.040, respectively) (Table 1). There were no significant differences for other adverse effects. Weight gain was the most frequent adverse effect, but there was no significant difference between groups (Table 1). Most users from both groups were satisfied with Implanon, with no difference in terms of satisfaction between groups ( Table 1). This finding implies that most women who experienced adverse effects were able to tolerate them. In conclusion, the present study has shown that bleeding patterns and non-menstrual adverse effects can differ according to timing of Implanon insertion after delivery. However, despite menstrual irregularities and other adverse effects, Implanon was well accepted in both groups.

Item Type: Article (Note)
Additional Information: 4990/49552
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adverse effects,Bleeding,Implanon,Postpartum period,Satisfaction
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Medicine > Department of Community Medicine (Effective: 1st January 2011)
Kulliyyah of Medicine > Department of Obstetric & Gynecology
Depositing User: salina mohammad
Date Deposited: 30 Mar 2016 15:24
Last Modified: 23 May 2018 14:32
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/49552

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