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An in vitro adipogenic potential and glucose uptake stimulatory effect of betulinic acid and stigmasterol isolated from Tetracera indica in 3T3-L1 cell line

Hasan, Md. Mahmudul (Stu) and Ahmed, Qamar Uddin and Latip, Jalifah and Mat So'ad, Siti Zaiton and Taher, Muhammad and Mohmad Sabere, Awis Sukarni and Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin (2023) An in vitro adipogenic potential and glucose uptake stimulatory effect of betulinic acid and stigmasterol isolated from Tetracera indica in 3T3-L1 cell line. Sains Malaysiana, 52 (2). pp. 501-512. ISSN 0126-6039

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Aerial parts of Tetracera indica Merr. (Dilleniaceae) are rich in betulinic acid and stigmasterol and traditionally used to treat diabetes. This study was aimed to evaluate an in vitro antidiabetic potential of betulinic acid and stigmasterol to ascertain whether they may contribute antidiabetic effect to T. indica. Initially, betulinic acid and stigmasterol were isolated from the most effective subfraction (ethyl acetate) and subjected to an in vitro antidiabetic investigation through adipogenesis and fluorescence glucose (2-NBDG) uptake assays using 3T3-L1 fibroblast. MTT viability assay was performed at 0.78 to 100 μg/mL for 48 h to determine the safe concentration. Both compounds were subjected to 2-NBDG uptake test on the differentiated adipocytes. The cells were treated in safe concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) as well as in different adipogenic cocktails, which were modified by the addition of compounds to be investigated and in the presence or absence of insulin (10 μM). Rosiglitazone (10 μM) was used as standard. Stems ethanol extract and its fractions (hexane and ethyl acetate), betulinic acid and stigmasterol were found safe at their highest concentration (100 μg/mL) by inhibiting cells well below their IC50 values viz. 18.60, 35.27, 21.40, 28.86 and 33.06%, respectively. Both betulinic acid and stigmasterol at the highest safe concentration (100 μg/mL) significantly (p <0.05) induced adipogenesis like insulin, enhanced adipogenesis like rosiglitazone and exhibited glucose uptake activity. The present study demonstrates that both betulinic acid and stigmasterol possess an in vitro antidiabetic potential. However, in vivo antiglycemic study on these compounds and their chemical analogs are still warranted to ensure their therapeutic potential as safe antidiabetic agents.

Item Type: Article (Journal)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adipogenesis; betulinic acid; insulin like activity; insulin sensitizing activity; stigmasterol; 2-NBDG uptake activity; 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Pharmacy
Kulliyyah of Pharmacy > Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Depositing User: Dr Qamar Uddin Ahmed
Date Deposited: 22 May 2023 10:17
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2023 11:06
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/104715

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