IIUM Repository

Study of the relationship between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) in children attending pediatric clinic, Kulliyyah of Dentistry

Faisal, Ghasak Ghazi and Mohd Noh, Nur Zety and Ibrahim, Farahin and Ardini, Yunita Dewi (2022) Study of the relationship between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) in children attending pediatric clinic, Kulliyyah of Dentistry. In: Compendium of Dental Sciences Research. Kulliyyah of Dentistry, pp. 1-10.

Download (5MB) | Preview


Obesity is an alarming worldwide health concern as both adults and children can be affected. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus are among the most commonly associated systemic problems with obesity. In addition, obesity in children has very harmful effects on the growth and development. Genetic factors can contribute to obesity, however, in most of the cases, it is caused by poor dietary habits, high sugar and fat intake and reduced physical activity. On the other hand, the other effect of ingestion of unhealthy food is manifested on the oral health, such as development of dental caries. Tooth decay is associated with poor oral hygiene and the consumption of high sugar foods will lead to a prolonged drop in intraoral pH and subsequently produce dental caries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship 1) between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries, and 2) between age group, daily sugar intake, daily oral self-care and dental caries among pediatric patients attending Polyclinic of Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). A total of 120 patients attending pediatric clinic aged between three to twelve years old were involved in this study. A questionnaire about the daily sugar intake and oral care of the children was given and answered by the parents. Body weight and height of the children were measured. The children were grouped according to BMI categories: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Dental charting was done, and the children were categorized based on the caries risk assessment: low, medium, and high. Out of 120 patients, 20.8% patients were underweight, 65% were normal, 5% were overweight, and 9.2% were obese. Meanwhile, 16.7% of the children had low caries risk, 20.8% had medium caries risk and 62.5% had high caries risk. Even though both underweight and overweight children showed higher caries risk than normal weight children, however, there was no statistically significant association between BMI category and dental caries (p>0.0.5). Children in the age group three to six scored highest in high caries risk (74.2%). Additionally, children with low sugary intake showed the highest percentage of low caries risk (50%). This study also found that the children who did not brush their teeth showed the highest caries risk (76.9%). There was a statistically significant association between daily sugar intake and dental caries (p=0.045), sugar intake and BMI (p=0.03) and age group and caries risk (p=0.000). Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which is caused by various factors like age, diet, and oral self-care. Therefore, BMI can be attributed to play only a partial role in determining caries status in children. Hence, proper oral health education and dietary advice since early childhood should be emphasized to achieve a good oral health

Item Type: Book Chapter
Uncontrolled Keywords: BMI, caries risk, children, dental caries, oral self-care, sugar intake
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Kulliyyahs/Centres/Divisions/Institutes (Can select more than one option. Press CONTROL button): Kulliyyah of Dentistry
Depositing User: NUR ZETY MOHD NOH
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2022 11:34
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2022 11:34
URI: http://irep.iium.edu.my/id/eprint/101423

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year